Code: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/nPNGc_1g

Interactive project online: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/present/nPNGc_1g

Code: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/nPNGc_1g

Interactive project online: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/present/nPNGc_1g

Simon has completed the course A New Kind of Science with Stephen Wolfram and the World Science Scholars program. Which doesn’t mean he is done with digging deep into Wolfram’s groundbreaking new kind of science! (As a matter of fact, he is still reading Wolfram’s 1500-page book. And as Professor Wolfram told Simon during the live session, there’s nothing in the book that no longer holds).

At the live session, a few scholars including Simon were planning to present their Wolfram Language demos, but Professor Wolfram was so inspired by his current research that he decided to share his latest discoveries instead (he is tiptoeing closer to laying the foundations of a theory that would unify all natural sciences based on his principle of computational equivalence). It was a very engaging session (even though Simon’s video camera malfunctioned, which hardly mattered).

As for Simon’s demo project, that’s a whole story. It took Simon weeks to define what he was actually going to pick as his topic and once he had picked his topic, he didn’t know where to start (because he managed to pick an NP problem). He suggested to collaborate together with another World Science Scholar, as it was that boy who initially inspired to think in the direction of the particular open math problem. The two of them had two long video chats. (It was so much fun to observe them, they both had zero interest in small talk and went straight down to the math, without even saying hi).

Unfortunately, after the original project presentation during the live session with Stephen Wolfram was cancelled, Simon’s partner never really replied to Simon’s chat messages (until weeks later). Simon did manage to get part of the demo done (porting a huge graph into the Wolfram Language, which required writing separate code in Python), but felt stuck later, after several attempts to color the graph failed. He ended up spending several days writing several more Python scripts. We have documented the process on video. The project has turned into a computational essay and it’s definitely still unfinished, but I’m not sure Simon will come back to it in the near future. He got a couple of minutes to present his findings at another live session last week (with a World Science Scholars teaching fellow Aaron Mertz and Rory Foulger, Education Outreach Coordinator at Wolfram Research), but was confused as he didn’t get any feedback about his findings and got the impression his main questions weren’t understood. He was also a bit annoyed with me yelling on the background about what he should do and say (I saw he was confused and was afraid his time would be cut short, so I wanted to make sure he would mention his main points). I’ve learned my lesson now and have decided not to interfere with his live performances anymore, not to put him under additional pressure.

Simon has also written to Professor Wolfram, currently awaiting his reply. His main questions were:

I was surprised to discover that no Heule or de Grey graphs exist (anymore?) built into the Wolfram Language. As part of my research, I’ve created a very long list of all the graphs the Wolfram Language knows about, and HeuleGraph is not in the list. I tried to pose this question during the short discussion of my project at the World Science Scholars live session this week, but didn’t get any feedback (I don’t think my question was understood). Yes, one is able to find images of Heule graphs in Wolfram notebooks, (like this one https://notebookarchive.org/heule-graph–2019-07-0z3zu9k/) and on Wolfram MathWorld (like here http://mathworld.wolfram.com/HeuleGraphs.html). But those are just pictures in archived notebooks, and even if I try to copy/paste the code into my own notebook, it doesn’t work.

My second question concerns coloring such a large graph in the Wolfram Language: do you think it could be possible? As I don’t know a built-in function to do that within the Wolfram Language (and I don’t think such a thing exists), I decided to try to color the graph in Python and then upload it into my Wolfram notebook. I created another Python script to make the graph easier to color, and yet another Python script to actually color all the vertices (using Breadth-First Search). The problem was: it didn’t color it with only 5 colors (but with 8)! I made a video about the making of the project, with me explaining why this task is hard for a computer to do, and even some computational complexity theory!

Timecodes: Converting to CSV: 0:00 Generating the Colors: 23:06 Some Math: 42:16 Part I Conclusion: 56:46

The project is attempting to visualize the Hadwiger–Nelson problem from geometric graph theory: what is the minimum number of colors required to color the plane (chromatic number of the plane) such that no two points at distance 1 from each other have the same color. It’s an unsolved problem, but we know that the answer is 5, 6 or 7. In 2018, Aubrey de Grey proved that the chromatic number of the plane is at least 5. His smallest unit-distance graph with chromatic number 5 had 1581 vertices. Several smaller graphs have been found since then, a major contribution done by Marijn Heule, who has come up with his own method of reducing the size of graphs. In 2019, Heule constructed the smallest unit-distance graph with chromatic number 5 so far, with 517 vertices. (Side-note: since I decided I’m going to use the 517 graph, I have actually found a smaller Heule graph with 508 vertices, but it was of a data format that I wasn’t able to use anyway). The goal of my project was to color such a graph in Wolfram language, to create a Wolfram Demo.

In Part 2, I tried to code yet another Python script to group the graph into smaller units to make a smaller graph, and color that one, then blow each vertex back into the unit considered.

Link to Simon’s Wolfram Notebook: https://www.wolframcloud.com/obj/9795e37e-aa73-4ae6-8249-81223ffdbc7f Link to my code on GitHub: https://github.com/simon-tiger/Hadwiger-Nelson-Project-Data

Link to Marijn Heule’s paper “Computing Small Unit-Distance Graphs with Chromatic Number 5”: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1805.12181.pdf

Simon saw this thumbnail (by the channel Mind Your Decisions) among the YouTube recommended videos and sat down to solve it, without watching the video, so that he doesn’t see the solution before he comes up with his own.

Simon’s visualization of the notorious thee-body problem (two stars and a particle) in 1D: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/WTUoBaxgo and in 2D: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/B0pQl94pd

Simon saw a prototype of this Galton Board in a video about maths toys (it works similarly to a sand timer in a see-through container). He created his digital simulation using p5.js online editor, free for everyone to enjoy:

Link to the interactive project and the code: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/n6-WZhMC3

Simon built a simple cellular automaton (rule 22) model for fracture. He read about this model a couple nights before in Stephen Wolfram’s “A New Kind of Science” and recreated it from memory.

Stephen Wolfram: “Even though no randomness is inserted from outside, the paths of the cracks that emerge from this model appear to a large extent random. There is some evidence from physical experiments that dislocations around cracks can form patterns that look similar to the grey and white backgrounds above” (p.375).

Today we have heard about a new accident involving a teenager electrocuted by her mobile phone. Luckily, this time it was not a lethal case, but a quick search on the web has revealed that this is no joke: several teens have died in just a few years because they were either holding their phone with wet hands while the phone was being charged at the same time, or dropped their phone into the bath tub while the phone was plugged in, or because they were using wired headphones while charging their phone!

At first Simon and I didn’t believe this could be so dangerous, as he knew for sure that a mobile phone adaptor always has a voltage control built into it that reduces the voltage from 220V to something like 5 to 20V. But then we dove into it and found out that apparently, once a short circuit occurs, the adaptor’s voltage control unit also malfunctions and lets the 220V current through!

Simon’s September visit to CERN has been featured in a World Science Scholars newsletter:

Here’s our update on the World Science Scholars program. Simon has finished the first bootcamp course on the theory and quantum mechanics by one of program’s founders, string theorist Professor Brian Greene and has taken part in three live sessions: with Professor Brian Greene, Professor Justin Khoury (dark matter research, alternatives to the inflationary paradigm, such as the Ekpyrotic Universe), and Professor Barry Barish (one of the leading experts in gravitational waves and particle detectors; won the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Rainer Weiss and Kip Thorne “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”).

At the moment, there isn’t much going on. Simon is following the second course offered by the program, at his own pace. It’s a course about neurology and neurological statistics by Professor Suzana Herculano-Houzel and is called “Big Brains, Small Brains: The Conundrum of Comparing Brains and Intelligence”. The course is compiled from Professor Herculano-Houzel’s presentations made at the World Science Festival so it doesn’t seem to have been recorded specifically for the scholars, like Professor Brian Greene’s course was.

Professor Herculano-Houzel has made “brain soup” (also called “isotropic fractionator”) out of dozens of animal species and has counted exactly how many neurons different brains are made of. Contrary to what Simon saw in Professor Greene’s course (mainly already familiar stuff as both relativity theory and quantum mechanics have been within his area of interest for quite some time), most of the material in this second course is very new to him. And possibly also less exciting. Although what helps is the mathematical way in which the data is presented. After all, the World Science Scholars program is about interdisciplinary themes that are intertwined with mathematical thinking.

Another mathematical example: in Professor Herculano-Houzel’s course on brains we have witnessed nested patterns, as if they escaped from Stephen Wolfram’s book we’re reading now.

Simon has also contributed to the discussion pages, trying out an experiment where paper surface represented cerebral cortex:

Simon: “Humans are not outliers because they’re outliers, they are outliers because there’s a hidden variable”.

Simon is looking forward to Stephen Wolfram’s course (that he is recording for world science scholars) and, of course, to the live sessions with him. The information that Stephen Wolfram will be the next lecturer has stimulated Simon to dive deep into his writings (we are already nearly 400 pages through his “bible” *A New Kind of Science*) and sparked a renewed and more profound understanding of cellular automata and Turing machines and of ways to connect those to our observations in nature. I’m pretty sure this is just the beginning.

It’s amazing to observe how quickly Simon grasps the concepts described in *A New Kind of Science*; on several occasions he has tried to recreate the examples he read about the night before.

In October and early November, Simon was busy with another attempt to simulate SAP-1 (simple as possible processor, an 8-bit computer) in Circuitverse (something that he hadn’t managed to complete when he tried it last time). I’m not even sure if anyone uses Circuitverse for such large-scale projects.

On November 7, Simon finally managed to finish the RAM on his simulated 8-bit computer (a computer where every general-purpose register contains 8 bits and therefore can only process 8 bits of data)! Although he is far from the end of the project, he is convinced that the RAM is the hardest part, so “now everything is going to be okay!”

“RAM was the hardest mainly because I have been trying to build the subcircuit for the RAM myself, which is not going to do it for SAP-2”,(Simon’s next ambition, also an 8-bit computer but with 64K memory, 2K PROM + 62K RAM). “This time the RAM I needed was particularly small, so I built a mini-RAM myself”.

You can view and launch this (unfinished) project via this link: https://circuitverse.org/users/7241/projects/35775

All of Simon’s projects on his Circuitverse page: https://circuitverse.org/users/7241

Simon’s current plan is to record a series of videos based on the Digital Computer Electronics book he uses as a guide in his engineering projects.

These are some simpler circuits from late September, simulated on Tinkercad:

This one’s back from mid-October, forgot to post here.

Simon created a random number generator that generates a frequency, and then picks it back up. Then, it calculates the error between the generated frequency and the picked up frequency. This is one of my community contributions for a Coding Train challenge: https://thecodingtrain.com/CodingChallenges/151-ukulele-tuner.html

Link to project: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/eOXdkP7tz

Link to the random number plots: https://www.wolframcloud.com/env/monajune0/ukalele%20tuner%20generated%20random%20number%20analysis.nb

Link to Daniel Shiffman’s live stream featured at the beginning of this vid: https://youtu.be/jKHgVdyC55M