Geometry Joys, Math Riddles, Milestones, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life, Physics, Simon teaching, Simon's sketch book

The Ladder Problem

Simon saw this thumbnail (by the channel Mind Your Decisions) among the YouTube recommended videos and sat down to solve it, without watching the video, so that he doesn’t see the solution before he comes up with his own.

Simon drawing out the solution in Geogebra
Coding, Crafty, Experiments, JavaScript, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Milestones, Murderous Maths, Physics, Simon teaching, Simon's Own Code, Simon's sketch book

Galton Board in p5.js

Simon saw a prototype of this Galton Board in a video about maths toys (it works similarly to a sand timer in a see-through container). He created his digital simulation using p5.js online editor, free for everyone to enjoy:

https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/h7p-wZCw8

Coding, Computer Science, Good Reads, JavaScript, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Milestones, Notes on everyday life, Physics, Simon teaching, Simon's Own Code

Crack Simulation in p5.js

Link to the interactive project and the code: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/n6-WZhMC3

Simon built a simple cellular automaton (rule 22) model for fracture. He read about this model a couple nights before in Stephen Wolfram’s “A New Kind of Science” and recreated it from memory.

Stephen Wolfram: “Even though no randomness is inserted from outside, the paths of the cracks that emerge from this model appear to a large extent random. There is some evidence from physical experiments that dislocations around cracks can form patterns that look similar to the grey and white backgrounds above” (p.375).

Curent Events, Electricity, Electronics, Engineering, Physics, Simon's sketch book, Together with sis

Discussing the news: dangers of shorting your mobile

Today we have heard about a new accident involving a teenager electrocuted by her mobile phone. Luckily, this time it was not a lethal case, but a quick search on the web has revealed that this is no joke: several teens have died in just a few years because they were either holding their phone with wet hands while the phone was being charged at the same time, or dropped their phone into the bath tub while the phone was plugged in, or because they were using wired headphones while charging their phone!

At first Simon and I didn’t believe this could be so dangerous, as he knew for sure that a mobile phone adaptor always has a voltage control built into it that reduces the voltage from 220V to something like 5 to 20V. But then we dove into it and found out that apparently, once a short circuit occurs, the adaptor’s voltage control unit also malfunctions and lets the 220V current through!

Simon’s drawing of the adaptor

Biology, Computer Science, Geography, Group, In the Media, Milestones, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life, Physics, Trips

World Science Scholars Feature Simon’s visit to CERN in a newsletter. The current course is about neurons. Reading Stephen Wolfram.

Simon’s September visit to CERN has been featured in a World Science Scholars newsletter:

Here’s our update on the World Science Scholars program. Simon has finished the first bootcamp course on the theory and quantum mechanics by one of program’s founders, string theorist Professor Brian Greene and has taken part in three live sessions: with Professor Brian Greene, Professor Justin Khoury (dark matter research, alternatives to the inflationary paradigm, such as the Ekpyrotic Universe), and Professor Barry Barish (one of the leading experts in gravitational waves and particle detectors; won the Nobel Prize in Physics along with Rainer Weiss and Kip Thorne “for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves”).

September 2019: Simon at a hotel room in Geneva taking pat in his first WSS live session, with Professor Brian Greene
September 2019: screenshot from Professor Brian Greene’s course module on quantum physics

At the moment, there isn’t much going on. Simon is following the second course offered by the program, at his own pace. It’s a course about neurology and neurological statistics by Professor Suzana Herculano-Houzel and is called “Big Brains, Small Brains: The Conundrum of Comparing Brains and Intelligence”. The course is compiled from Professor Herculano-Houzel’s presentations made at the World Science Festival so it doesn’t seem to have been recorded specifically for the scholars, like Professor Brian Greene’s course was.

Professor Herculano-Houzel has made “brain soup” (also called “isotropic fractionator”) out of dozens of animal species and has counted exactly how many neurons different brains are made of. Contrary to what Simon saw in Professor Greene’s course (mainly already familiar stuff as both relativity theory and quantum mechanics have been within his area of interest for quite some time), most of the material in this second course is very new to him. And possibly also less exciting. Although what helps is the mathematical way in which the data is presented. After all, the World Science Scholars program is about interdisciplinary themes that are intertwined with mathematical thinking.

Screenshots of the course’s quizzes. Simon has learned about scale invariance, the number of neurons in the human brain, allometric and isometric scaling relationships.

Another mathematical example: in Professor Herculano-Houzel’s course on brains we have witnessed nested patterns, as if they escaped from Stephen Wolfram’s book we’re reading now.

screenshot from the course by Professor Herculano-Houzel

Simon has also contributed to the discussion pages, trying out an experiment where paper surface represented cerebral cortex:

The top paper represents the cerebral cortex of a smaller animal. Cerebral cortex follows the same physical laws when folding is applied.

Simon: “Humans are not outliers because they’re outliers, they are outliers because there’s a hidden variable”.

screenshot from Professor Herculano-Houzel’s course: after colour has been added to the plot, the patterns reveal themselves

Simon is looking forward to Stephen Wolfram’s course (that he is recording for world science scholars) and, of course, to the live sessions with him. The information that Stephen Wolfram will be the next lecturer has stimulated Simon to dive deep into his writings (we are already nearly 400 pages through his “bible” A New Kind of Science) and sparked a renewed and more profound understanding of cellular automata and Turing machines and of ways to connect those to our observations in nature. I’m pretty sure this is just the beginning.

It’s amazing to observe how quickly Simon grasps the concepts described in A New Kind of Science; on several occasions he has tried to recreate the examples he read about the night before.

Simon playing around in Wolfram Mathematica, after reading about minor changes to the initial conditions of an idealised version of the kneading process
Simon working out a “study plan” for his Chinese lessons using a network system model he saw in Stephen Wolfram’s book “A New Kind of Science”
Electronics, Engineering, Experiments, Milestones, Physics

More Engineering. RAM Ready in the simulated 8-bit computer project in Circuitverse.

In October and early November, Simon was busy with another attempt to simulate SAP-1 (simple as possible processor, an 8-bit computer) in Circuitverse (something that he hadn’t managed to complete when he tried it last time). I’m not even sure if anyone uses Circuitverse for such large-scale projects.

Main

On November 7, Simon finally managed to finish the RAM on his simulated 8-bit computer (a computer where every general-purpose register contains 8 bits and therefore can only process 8 bits of data)! Although he is far from the end of the project, he is convinced that the RAM is the hardest part, so “now everything is going to be okay!”

“RAM was the hardest mainly because I have been trying to build the subcircuit for the RAM myself, which is not going to do it for SAP-2”,(Simon’s next ambition, also an 8-bit computer but with 64K memory, 2K PROM + 62K RAM). “This time the RAM I needed was particularly small, so I built a mini-RAM myself”.

The most difficult part, half of the mini-RAM. It doesn’t contain 16 bites, it contains 16 4-bit words or “nibbles” of memory

You can view and launch this (unfinished) project via this link: https://circuitverse.org/users/7241/projects/35775

All of Simon’s projects on his Circuitverse page: https://circuitverse.org/users/7241

Simon’s current plan is to record a series of videos based on the Digital Computer Electronics book he uses as a guide in his engineering projects.

Simon compiling a plan (in Microsoft Paint) based on the Digital Computer Electronics book contents

These are some simpler circuits from late September, simulated on Tinkercad:

Test circuit in Tinkercad on 30 September 2019
Test circuit in Tinkercad on 30 September 2019
JK Flipflop to create simple clock module in Tinkercad on 30 September 2019
Coding, Community Projects, Contributing, Experiments, JavaScript, live stream, Machine Learning, Milestones, Physics, Simon's Own Code

Simon’s Random Number Generator

This one’s back from mid-October, forgot to post here.

Simon created a random number generator that generates a frequency, and then picks it back up. Then, it calculates the error between the generated frequency and the picked up frequency. This is one of my community contributions for a Coding Train challenge: https://thecodingtrain.com/CodingChallenges/151-ukulele-tuner.html

Link to project: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/eOXdkP7tz
Link to the random number plots: https://www.wolframcloud.com/env/monajune0/ukalele%20tuner%20generated%20random%20number%20analysis.nb
Link to Daniel Shiffman’s live stream featured at the beginning of this vid: https://youtu.be/jKHgVdyC55M

plot of the random numbers generated by Simon’s ukulele tuner random number generator (plotted in Wolfram Mathematica)
Crafty, Electricity, Electronics, Engineering, Experiments, Geometry Joys, Notes on everyday life, Physics, Simon teaching, Together with sis

Vanishing Letters

Simon’s way to celebrate Helloween: a little demo about how red marker reflects red LED light and becomes invisible. A nice trick in the dark!

We also had so much fun with the blue LED lamp a couple days ago when Simon discovered that it projects perfect conic sections on the wall! Depending on the angle at which he was holding the lamp, he got a circle, an ellipse, a hyperbola and a parabola! Originally just a spheric light source we grabbed after the power went out in the bathroom, in Simon’s hands the lamp has become an inspiring science demo tool.

Computer Science, Engineering, Good Reads, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life, Physics, Simon teaching, Simon's sketch book, Together with sis

Zutopedia, a fun Computer Science Resource

Through the whole moth of October, Simon really loved watching Computer Science and Physics videos by Udi Aharoni, a researcher at IBM research labs and creator of the Udiprod channel https://www.youtube.com/user/udiprod and the Zutopedia website http://www.zutopedia.com/ Simon’s favourite has been the Halting Problem video that he also explained to his little sister.

In the example below, Simon has applied a compression algorithm to a sentence by transforming the sentence into a tree where all the letters have their corresponding frequencies in this sentence. “Can you get back to the sentence? You have to first transform the letters into ones and zeros using the tree (the tree is a way to encode it into ones and zeros that’s better than ASCII)”.

Simon learned this at http://www.zutopedia.com/compression.html
thanks to the Udiprod channel, Simon has also revisited sorting algorithms and spent hours comparing them, this time using self-made number cards