Computer Science, Crafty, Logic, Simon's sketch book

Simon crafting a search engine with sticky notes

Simon working on a simplified version of a search engine, including just a few documents, and performing calculations to determine how many searches one should do to make creating an index of all the documents efficient (something he has picked up in Brilliant.org’s Computer Science course.

screenshot from Brilliant.org’s Computer Science course
Computer Science, Engineering, Good Reads, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life, Physics, Simon teaching, Simon's sketch book, Together with sis

Zutopedia, a fun Computer Science Resource

Through the whole moth of October, Simon really loved watching Computer Science and Physics videos by Udi Aharoni, a researcher at IBM research labs and creator of the Udiprod channel https://www.youtube.com/user/udiprod and the Zutopedia website http://www.zutopedia.com/ Simon’s favourite has been the Halting Problem video that he also explained to his little sister.

In the example below, Simon has applied a compression algorithm to a sentence by transforming the sentence into a tree where all the letters have their corresponding frequencies in this sentence. “Can you get back to the sentence? You have to first transform the letters into ones and zeros using the tree (the tree is a way to encode it into ones and zeros that’s better than ASCII)”.

Simon learned this at http://www.zutopedia.com/compression.html
thanks to the Udiprod channel, Simon has also revisited sorting algorithms and spent hours comparing them, this time using self-made number cards
Computer Science, Contributing, Group, Logic, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Milestones, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life

Brilliant Discussions

This is an example of the learning style that Simon enjoys most. He really likes doing the daily challenges on Brilliant.org. He later sometimes discusses them with other participants or even writes wikis!

Simon writing an explanation on Brilliant.org’s discussion page about a Computer Science Fundamentals daily challenge. Link to the full discussion: https://brilliant.org/daily-problems/what-variable-1/
The problem and Simon’s answer
Simon’s contribution to the discussion
Coding, Computer Science, Good Reads, JavaScript, Milestones, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life, Set the beautiful mind free, Simon's Own Code, Simon's sketch book

Simon’s first steps in Stephen Wolfram’s Computational Universe

Simon has been enjoying Stephen Wolfram’s huge volume called A New Kind of Science and is generally growingly fascinated with Wolfram’s visionary ideas about the computational universe. We have been reading the 1500-page A New Kind of Science every night for several weeks now, Simon voraciously soaking up the behaviour of hundreds of simple programs like cellular automata.

Wolfram’s main message is that, contrary to our intuition, simple rules can result in complex and often seemingly random behaviour and since humanity now has the computer as a tool to study and simulate that behaviour, it could open a beautiful new alternative to the existing models used in science. According to Wolfram, we may soon realise that the mathematical models we are currently using, based on equations and constraints instead of simple rules, are merely a historical artefact. I’m amazed at how much this is in line with Simon’s own tentative thoughts he was sharing with me earlier this year, about how maths will be taken over by computer science and how algorithms are a more powerful tool than equations. When he came up with those ideas he hadn’t discovered Wolfram’s research and philosophy yet, he used to only know Wolfram as the creator of Wolfram Mathematica and the Wolfram language, both of which Simon greatly admires for being so advanced.

Last night, Simon was watching a TED talk Stephen Wolfram gave in 2010 about the possibilities of computing the much aspired theory of everything, but not in the traditional mathematical way. “It’s about the universe!” Simon whispered to me wide-eyed, when I came to the living room to fetch him. “Mom, and you know who was in the audience there? Benoit Mandelbrot!” (Simon knows Mandelbrot died the same year, he is intrigued by the fact that his and Mandelbrot’s lifetimes have actually overlapped by one year).

We have been informed by the World Science Scholars program that Stephen Wolfram will be one of the professors preparing a course for this year’s scholars cohort, so Simon will have the unique experience of taking that course and engaging in a live session with Stephen Wolfram. It is breathtaking, a chance to connect with someone who is much older, renowned and accomplished, and at the same time so like-minded, a soulmate.

Inspired by reading Stephen Wolfram, Simon has revisited the world of cellular automata and Turing machines, and created a few beautiful Langton’s Ants:

Link to Simon’s sketch on p5: https://editor.p5js.org/simontiger/sketches/sHa6d-AFf
Simon especially likes the last example in the video: “I think of it as triangular houses surrounding a flower garden!”

Simon has also watched a talk by Stephen Wolfram for MIT course 6.S099: Artificial General Intelligence. He said it had things in it about Wolfram Alpha that he didn’t know yet.

Computer Science, Crafty, Electronics, Engineering, Good Reads, Milestones, Simon's sketch book

Simon trying to build a 8-bit computer in circuit simulators

As some of you may know, Simon is working on building a real-life 8-bit computer from scratch, guided by Ben Eater’s tutorials (it’s a huge project that may takes months). He has also been enchanted by the idea to build the computer in a simulator as well, researching all virtual environments possible. The best simulator Simon has tried so far has been Circuitverse.org, although he did stumble upon a stack overflow error once, approximately half-way through (maybe the memory wasn’t big enough for such an elaborate circuit, Simon said). You can view Simon’s projects on Circuitverse here: https://circuitverse.org/users/7241

Link to the project that ended up having a stack overflow: https://circuitverse.org/users/7241/projects/21712

And here is a link to Simon’s new and more successful attempt to put together a SAP-1 (simple as possible) processor (work in progress), something he has been reading about in his new favourite book, the Digital Computer Electronics eBook (third edition): https://circuitverse.org/users/7241/projects/22541

https://circuitverse.org/users/7241/projects/21712
the register
the RAM
https://circuitverse.org/users/7241/projects/22541

Simon has also tried building an 8-bit computer in Simulator.io, but it was really difficult and time consuming:

Version in simulator.io

The next hopeful candidate was the Virtual Breadboard desktop app for pc. Simon downloaded it about ten times from the Microsoft store but it somehow never arrived, most probably because our Windows version was slightly outdated but who knows.

And finally, Simon has also discovered Fritzing.org, an environment for creating your own pcbs with a real-life look. He may attempt actually making a hardcopy SAP-1 via Fritzing after he’s done with the Ben Eater project. Conclusion: sticking with Circuitverse for the time being.

Computer Science, Electronics, Engineering, Good Reads, Notes on everyday life, Uncategorized

The Digital Computer Electronics book

Simon has been mesmerised by this book for a couple of days by now, the Digital Computer Electronics eBook (third edition). He has downloaded it online and has been reading about the so called “simple as possible” processors or the sap’s (he loves the name) one of which is like the 8-bit computer he is currently trying to build from scratch.

Simon reading the book in the playroom. I hear him laughing and reading aloud.
a screenshot of the book
Taking notes on SAP-2 instructions (and listening to a quiz show on YouTube at the same time) – his way of learning
Computer Science, Crafty, Logic, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Murderous Maths, Simon teaching, Simon's sketch book, Together with sis

The Diffe-Hellman key exchange algorithm

This is Simon explaining Diffe-Hellman key exchange (also called DiffeHellman protocol). He first explained the algorithm mixing watercolours (a color representing a key/ number) and then mathematically. The algorithm allows two parties (marked “you” and “your friend” in Simon’s diagram) with no prior knowledge of each other to establish a shared secret key over an insecure channel (a public area or an “eavesdropper”). This key can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric keycipher. Simon calls it “a neat algorithm”). Later the same night, he also gave me a lecture on a similar but more complicated algorithm called the RSA. Simon first learned about this on Computerphile and then also saw a video about the topic on MajorPrep. And here is another MajorPrep video on modular arithmetic.

originally there are two private keys (a and b) and one public key g
Neva helping Simon to mix the colors representing each key
Mixing g and b to create the public key for b
Mixing the public and the private keys to create a unique shared key
Done!Both a and b have a unique shared key (purplish)
Simon now expressed the same in mathematical formulas
Simon explained that the ≡ symbol (three stripes) means congruence in its modular arithmetic meaning (if a and b are congruent modulo n, they have no difference in modular arithmetic under modulo n)
Computer Science, Electronics, Geometry Joys, Logic, Math and Computer Science Everywhere, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life, Simon's sketch book, Trips

Doing math and computer science everywhere

One more blog post with impressions from our vacation at the Cote d’Azur in France. Don’t even think of bringing Simon to the beach or the swimming pool without a sketchbook to do some math or computer science!

This is something Simon experimented with extensively last time we were in France. Also called the block-stacking or the book-stacking problem.
Simon wrote this from memory to teach another boy at the pool about ASCII binary. The boy actually seemed to find it interesting. A couple days later two older boys approached him at the local beach and told him that they knew who he was, that he was Simon who only talked about math. Then the boys ran away and Simon ran after them saying “Sorry!” We have explained to him that he doesn’t have to say sorry for loving math and for being the way he is.
Drinking a cocktail at the beach always comes with a little lecture. This time, the truth tables.
Community Projects, Computer Science, Group, Milestones, Murderous Maths, Notes on everyday life

Simon introducing himself for the World Science Scholars program

This is Simon’s introductory video for the World Science Scholars program (initiative of The World Science Festival). In May this year, Simon has been chosen as one of the 30 young students worldwide, joining the 2019 cohort for exceptional talents in mathematics. Most of the other students are 14 to 17 years old, age was not a factor in the selection process. To help the students and their future mentors to get to know one another, every World Science Scholar was asked to record an introductory video, no longer than 3 minutes, answering a few questions such as what is the biggest misconception about math, what your favourite branches of math and science are and who among the living mathematicians you’d like to meet.

Throughout the program, the students are given access to over a dozen unique interdisciplinary online courses and have the option to complete an applied math project, alone or as a team, consulting real experts in the field of their project. Simon has already started the first course module, on Special Relativity by Professor Brian Greene. The course has been specifically recorded for the World Science Scholars and reflects the program’s ethos: it’s self-paced, no grades, it relies on beautiful animations and visualizations, it’s full of subtle humour, is dynamic, thought-provoking and quite advanced (exactly in The Goldilocks Zone for Simon, as far as I could judge), yet broken up into easy-to-digest pieces. It’s difficult to predict how Simon’s path as a World Science Scholar will unfold (I’m afraid of making any predictions as he is extremely autodidact), but so far we have been very pleased with the nature of this program and it seems to match our non-coercive, self-directed learning style. I have especially liked one of the course’s main postulates: “Simultaneity is in the eye of the beholder”.

Simon watching Brian Greene’s Special Relativity course
Studying light clocks
Light clocks. Does the moving light clock tick slower?
Simon thinking about the question: Does the moving light clock tick slower?